Food/Livelihood Security and Instruments and Tools



Ursula Gross and Rainer Gross, GTZ
Nutrition assessment for relevant Projects/Programs in Developing Countries

Johns Hopkins University
The paper begins with a review of methods for assessing nutritional status, particularly in emergencies; a brief history of the North Korean food crisis (1995–2001), and a review of the available nutritional and health data on the DPRK. The main focus of the paper is on the results of a survey of 2,692 North Korean adult migrants in China. Recognizing certain biases and limitations, the study suggests that sample households have experienced an overall decline in food security, as evidenced by both the decline in government rations from an average of 120 grams per person per day to less than 60 grams per day, and by the increase in the percentage of households relying on foraging or bartering of assets as their principal source of food.

International Food Policy Research Institute

International Food Policy Research Institute


Overseas Development Institute
This paper describes the theory and practice of Oxfam GB’s livelihoods approach to assessing food security in emergencies. A livelihoods approach simply means emergency programming aimed at supporting livelihoods, as well as saving lives. In terms of food-security assessments, a livelihoods approach involves assessing the longer-term risks to livelihoods, as well as short-term nutritional or lifethreatening risks.

Food economy analysis is an analytical framework designed to help decision-makers understand the effects of different 'shocks' on household-level livelihood options.

FANTA Project
The purpose of this guide is to assist in the identification of food security indicators to be used in the monitoring and evaluation of U.S. P.L. 480 Title II food aid programs. Effectively integrating food security indicators into the monitoring and evaluation (M&E) systems of food-assisted programs will ensure more efficient management of these increasingly scarce development resources and improve their ultimate impact on the lives and well-being of program beneficiaries.

FANTA Project
There is strong demand among Title II-supported Private Voluntary Organizations (PVOs) and other agencies for a relatively simple, methodologically rigorous measure of ‘food security’(particularly the ‘access’ dimension) that can be used to guide, monitor and evaluate operational interventions. Responding to this demand, the three-pronged objective of the research project was to: 1) develop and validate a measure of household food access based on locally recognized behaviors that reliably distinguish households facing different degrees of insecurity in developing countries, 2) test the Food Access Survey Tool (FAST) measure’s relationship to conventional indicators of food insecurity (typical proxies such as income, nutrition and food intake), and 3) test the measure’s application in a longitudinal exploration of its sensitivity to change related to program impact and secular trends.

Tango International Inc. (for CARE USA PHLS Unit)
A handbook that outlines the background and methodology of Household Livelihood Security Assessments, and how they can be used in various development approaches and intervention designs.
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