Food/Livelihood Security and Sampling

 

 

Food Aid Management
The workshop was designed for PVO field and headquarters staff involved in Title II program management. The goal of the workshop was to provide PVO Title II managers with basic knowledge of the sampling process in order to be able to provide adequate direction and supervision to the technical staff (or external consultants) who design and conduct surveys.
  

FANTA Project
This guide is designed to provide guidance on how to go about choosing samples of communities, households, and/or individuals for such surveys in a manner that, when combined with appropriate indicators and evaluation study designs, will permit valid conclusions to be drawn as to the effectiveness of Title II programs. The guide emphasizes the use of probability sampling methods, which are deemed essential to ensure objectivity in program evaluations. Estimates of population characteristics derived from sample surveys conducted following suggested guidelines may be expected to approximate the "true" population value within a specified margin of error with a known probability.
  

International Food Policy Research Institute
  

International Food Policy Research Institute
  

Food Aid Management
  

FANTA
Sample surveys are often the most feasible means of gathering the data required for Title II program evaluations, and this guide is designed to provide guidance on how to go about choosing samples of communities, households, and/or individuals for such surveys in a manner that, when combined with appropriate indicators and evaluation study designs, will permit valid conclusions to be drawn as to the effectiveness of Title II programs. The guide emphasizes the use of probability sampling methods, which are deemed essential to ensure objectivity in program evaluations. Estimates of population characteristics derived from sample surveys conducted following suggested guidelines may be expected to approximate the "true" population value within a specified margin of error with a known probability. Section 2 looks at how to define the measurement objectives of the survey to be conducted. Defining measurement objectives involves answering the following three questions, which are discussed in detail in the text: What is to be measured? From whom? At what level of precision? Section 3 examines how sample size requirements should be determined. It explains how to calculate sample sizes after it has been decided what is being measured and how to measure it. The procedure is broken down into three steps. First, the total number of sample elements must be determined; for this, formulae are provided to identify how many individuals must be sampled depending on whether progress is to be measured by changes in the proportion of the population that has a given characteristic or by changes in the mean of a given indicator. Second, the total number of elements must be converted into the number of households that must be contacted. Third, the total number of households need to be turned into the practical units (clusters and subjects within them) that will be visited by the survey team. The end of this chapter examines sample size requirements for follow-up surveys. Section 4 looks at how to select the sample. It defines probability sampling, explains why it is recommended, and explains step-by-step the various ways in which the clusters and elements mentioned in Section 3 can be selected, depending on various circumstances. Suggestions are also given on how to deal with operational problems. The chapter wraps up with a look at design issues for follow-up surveys. Section 5 discusses how to analyze the data collected. It addresses the statistical issues of calculating weights and standard errors as they arise as a result of the combination of methods used to select clusters and elements. Formulae are provided for weight calculation for several typical combinations.
  

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